The Ethical Implications of ChatGPT AI Chatbot: A Review

  • Received
    June 3, 2023
  • Revised
    July 17, 2023
  • Accepted
    July 19, 2023
  • Published
    July 26, 2023


  • Tawfeeq Mokdada Tawfeeq
  • Ali Jalal Awqati
  • Yaser A. Jasim


This paper analyses the ethical implications of ChatGPT AI chatbot, a popular natural language processing model. The study gives a background and literature analysis of artificial intelligence (AI) ethics, ethical considerations for chatbot and conversational agents, and existing research on the ethical implications of ChatGPT AI after presenting the technology and describing the complexities of its ethical implications. The section on ethical implications examines possible issues such as privacy concerns; bias; fairness issues, malicious usage, and the influence on human interaction and social skills. The paper then criticizes present ethical rules and regulations and recommends modifications for ChatGPT AI ethical principles. Case studies and examples provide the moral quandaries in ChatGPT AI chatbot usage, successful ethical implementations, and lessons gained. This review outlines the relevance of ethical issues in the processes of construction and deployment of the ChatGPT AI chatbot, the necessity for a multidisciplinary approach to handle its moral implications, and the last thoughts and recommendations for ethical implementation.


Artificial Intelligence, Ethics, Human Capital, ChatGPT, Chatbot, OpenAI


Al Delawi, A.S., 2019. Role of ethics in islamic thinking in the activation of accounting information quality. Utopía y praxis latinoamericana: revista internacional de filosofía iberoamericana y teoría social, ( 6), pp.179-187.

Al-Delawi, A.S., Raewf, M.B. and S Jameel, A., 2023. The Impact of Human Capital on a Company’s Value: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Intercultural Communication23(1), pp.24-32.

Astobiza, A.M., Toboso, M., Aparicio, M. and López, D., 2021. AI ethics for sustainable development goals. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine40(2), pp.66-71.

Buolamwini, J. and Gebru, T., 2018, January. Gender shades: Intersectional accuracy disparities in commercial gender classification. In Conference on fairness, accountability and transparency (pp. 77-91). PMLR.

Caliskan, A., Bryson, J.J. and Narayanan, A., 2017. Semantics derived automatically from language corpora contain human-like biases. Science356(6334), pp.183-186.

Doshi-Velez, F. and Kim, B., 2017. Towards a rigorous science of interpretable machine learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.08608.

Flaih, L.R. and Shukur, M.H., 2018. Software Agent for E-mail Spam Filtering. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research13(10), pp.7701-7703.

Friedman, B. and Nissenbaum, H., 2022. Excerpt from Bias in Computer Systems. In Ethics of Data and Analytics (pp. 20-26). Auerbach Publications.

Hamdoun, S., Monteleone, R., Bookman, T. and Michael, K., 2023. AI-based and digital mental health apps: Balancing need and risk. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine42(1), pp.25-36.

Huang, C., Zhang, Z., Mao, B. and Yao, X., 2022. An overview of artificial intelligence ethics. IEEE Transactions on Artificial Intelligence.

Hughes, A., 2023. ChatGPT: Everything you need to know about OpenAI’s GPT-3 tool. BBC Science Focus Magazine16, Retrieved on March 23, 2023, (16th March, 2023).

Jami, M.S., Massoudi, A.H. and Al-Salami, Q.H., 2023. Ethical Leadership Role in Job Embeddedness and Job Involvement‎. Cihan University-Erbil Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences7(1), pp.11-15.

Jasim, Y.A., 2022. A Genetic Disaster of Human Cloning. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal6(1), pp.53-56.

Jobin, A., Ienca, M. and Vayena, E., 2019. The global landscape of AI ethics guidelines. Nature machine intelligence1(9), pp.389-399.

Liebrenz, M., Schleifer, R., Buadze, A., Bhugra, D. and Smith, A., 2023. Generating scholarly content with ChatGPT: ethical challenges for medical publishing. The Lancet Digital Health5(3), pp.e105-e106.

Luo, B., Lau, R.Y., Li, C. and Si, Y.W., 2022. A critical review of state‐of‐the‐art chatbot designs and applications. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery12(1), p.e1434.

Mathew, A., 2023. Is Artificial Intelligence a World Changer? A Case Study of OpenAI’s Chat GPT. Recent Progress in Science and Technology Vol. 5, pp.35-42.

Mhlanga, D., 2023. Open AI in education, the responsible and ethical use of ChatGPT towards lifelong learning. Education, the Responsible and Ethical Use of ChatGPT Towards Lifelong Learning (February 11, 2023).

Prem, E., 2023. From ethical AI frameworks to tools: a review of approaches. AI and Ethics, pp.1-18.

Qin, C., Zhang, A., Zhang, Z., Chen, J., Yasunaga, M. and Yang, D., 2023. Is ChatGPT a general-purpose natural language processing task solver?. arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.06476.

Rapp, A., Curti, L. and Boldi, A., 2021. The human side of human-chatbot interaction: A systematic literature review of ten years of research on text-based chatbots. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies151, p.102630.

Robinson, J., 2023. The cost of science a look at the ethical implications of chatgpt.

Saeed, M.G, Jasim, Y.A. and Raewf, M.B., 2022. Analyzing Social Media Sentiment: Twitter as a Case Study. ADCAIJ: Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal, 11(4), pp.427-450.

Sallam, M., Salim, N.A., Ala’a, B., Barakat, M., Fayyad, D., Hallit, S., Harapan, H., Hallit, R., Mahafzah, A. and Ala’a, B., 2023. ChatGPT output regarding compulsory vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy: A descriptive study at the outset of a paradigm shift in online search for information. Cureus15(2).

Schreiber, M. and Gloor, P., 2023. AI in Psychology-Is Man a Machine?.

Skjuve, M., Følstad, A., Fostervold, K.I. and Brandtzaeg, P.B., 2021. My chatbot companion-a study of human-chatbot relationships. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies149, p.102601.

Taddeo, M., McCutcheon, T. and Floridi, L., 2019. Trusting artificial intelligence in cybersecurity is a double-edged sword. Nature Machine Intelligence1(12), pp.557-560.

Thabit, T.H. and Jasim, Y.A., 2017, March. The Impact of Information Security International Standards. In Conference of Cihan University-Erbil on Communication Engineering and Computer Science (p. 89).

Tsai, W.H.S. and Chuan, C.H., 2023. Humanizing Chatbots for Interactive Marketing. The Palgrave Handbook of Interactive Marketing, pp.255-273.

Varsha, P.S., 2023. How can we manage biases in artificial intelligence systems–A systematic literature review. International Journal of Information Management Data Insights3(1), p.100165.

Yeo, Y.H., Samaan, J.S., Ng, W.H., Ting, P.S., Trivedi, H., Vipani, A., Ayoub, W., Yang, J.D., Liran, O., Spiegel, B. and Kuo, A., 2023. Assessing the performance of ChatGPT in answering questions regarding cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. medRxiv, pp.2023-02.

Zhuo, T.Y., Huang, Y., Chen, C. and Xing, Z., 2023. Exploring ai ethics of chatgpt: A diagnostic analysis. arXiv preprint arXiv:2301.12867.